Friday, 19 September 2014





POLI 453
 Democracy requires inclusive political participation where all adults have political privileges because it is based on the principle that the legitimacy of power to make decisions about people’s lies should derive from those affected
 Often democracy is defined in gender neutral terms with seemingly universal concepts such as the people’s right to vote and to contest for office, which assumes equality between men and women, but it tends to hide substantial gender inequality. While women may appear to be included in definitions of democracy they may not be included in practice. The limited presence of women in political life in most countries compared to their size of the population is a sign that veiled discrimination. Many obstacles still exist which prevent women from having the same voice and size of representation as men in politics and decision-making while measures to deal with them have not always proved successful in practice.
This course seeks to examine some of the trajectories outlined above. It begins with the study of some basic concepts in, and rationale for, gender and politics.  It then discusses the obstacles that confront women in politics and affirmative action to deal with them as well as international/national documents/platforms relating to gender and politics. In addition, it makes an in-depth study of the prospects and challenges of the role of women in Ghanaian politics at both national and local government levels.

Upon completion of this course students should be able to:
  •     understand some basic concepts in gender and politics and explain the gaps between theory and practice in gender equality
  •       discuss the major obstacles that confront women in politics
  •     examine various forms of affirmative action to tackle gender inequality in politics
  •   examine the strengths and weaknesses of some international/national documents/platforms relating to gender and politics
  •      discuss and fully appreciate  the role of women in politics and public life in Ghana at national and local government levels
  •    enhance their ability  to contribute to discussions on issues of gender and politics

CASE STUDIES:  Rwanda, Ghana

Lecture Course

Issues of Gender and Politics

Basic Concepts in Gender & Politics
Rationale for Gender and Politics
Forms of representation
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR


Obstacles to Women in Politics: Political, Socio-Economic, Ideological & Psychological

Examination of  various forms of obstacles
Suggestions for removing obstacles
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR


International/National Documents/Platforms on Women in Politics: CEDAW, MDGs, Beijing Platform, The Women’s Manifesto
Discuss relevant portions of documents/platforms relating to women in politics: strengths & weaknesses
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR


Affirmative Action for Women in Politics: Electoral Systems & Quotas, etc, role of women organizations

Merits & Demerits of Affirmative Action
Effects of Electoral Systems on  Women
Types & relative merits of Quotas
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR


Gender and National Politics in Ghana
Discussion of prospects and challenges women in national politics in Ghana
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR


Gender and Local Governance in Ghana
Discussion of prospects and challenges women in local governance in Ghana
Lecture: JQB 19
Tutorial: DLR

Reading List

Hazel Reeves & Sally Badan (2000) Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions, Brighton: University of Sussex Institute of Development Studies

Sarah Childs & Mona Lena Crooks (2006) “Gender and Politics: The State of the Art”, in POLITICS, Vol. 26, No.1, pp.18-28.

Josefa ‘Gigi’ Francisco, ed. (2005) Gender, Governance and Democracy: Women in Politics, Isis International –Manila Monogragh Series 1, Vol. 1,

Pamela Paxton (2009) “Gender and Development”, in C.W Haerpfer, P. Bernhagen, R.F. Inglehart & C. Welzel, eds. Democratization, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 145-257.

Marilyn Waring (2010) Women’s Political Participation, Institute of Public Policy, Auckland University of Technology.

Wendy Stokes (2005) Women in Contemporary Politics, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Nadezdha Shvedova (2002) “Obstacles to Women’s Participation in Parliament” in International IDEAS Handbook, Stockholm

Bernice Sam (2009) Interrogating Affirmative Action as Strategy for Increasing Women’s Participation in Politics: The Rhetoric and The Reality, Accra: WiLDAF Ghana.

Dzodzi Tsikata (2009) Affirmative Action and the Prospects of Gender Equality in Ghanaian Politics, Accra: ABANTU, WIB & FES-Ghana.

Drude Dahlerup, ed. (2006) Women, Quotas & Politics, New York/London: Routledge

Marguerite El-Helou, ed.(2009) “Gender Quotas in Parliamentary Representation”,  Al-Raida, The Pioneer  Special Issue, Summer/Fall.

Beatrix Allah-Mensah (2005) Women in Politics and Public Life in Ghana, Accra: Friedrich Elbert Stiftung.

Beatrix Allah-Mensah (2001) “Political Parties, Gender and Representation: The Case of Ghana’s 
Election 2000”, in J. R. A. Ayee, ed. Deepening Democracy in Ghana: Politics  of the 2000 Elections, Accra: Freedom Publications, pp. 122-140.

Michael Nkansah (2009) Advocating for Increment in Number of Women in Public Office in Ghana: From Independence to 2008, M. Phil thesis, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergin, Norway.

ABANTU (2008) The Women’s Manifesto for Ghana, Accra: The Coalition on the Women’s Manifesto for Ghana hosted by ABANTU for Development.

The UN Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979.

The UN Millennium Development Goals, 2000.

The Beijing Platform of Action, 1995

Beatrix Allah-Mensah (2003) “Gender and Local Governance in Ghana: The Case of the 2002 District Level Elections ” in N. Amponsah & K. Boafo-Arthur, eds. Local Government in Ghana: Grassroots Participation in the 2002 Local Government Elections in Ghana, Accra: Uniflow Publishing Ltd, pp. 137-163.

NB: Students must as well do internet searches of their own.

The examination will be in two parts: Interim Assessment (30%) and End-of- Semester Examination 70%. The Interim Assessment will be a take-home assignment and the End of Semester Examination will consist of a two-and-half-hour paper with two sections: Section A has 50 short answer questions covering the entire course. Attention must therefore be paid to details on topics treated. Section B will have three essay questions from which students answer one.

Friday, 12 September 2014


University of Ghana
POLI 441: The Political Economy of Africa’s Development since Independence

Course Outline and Reading List
First Semester 2014/2015 

Lecturers: Dr. S. M. Alidu/Mr. K. Jonah               Contact:
Time and Venue:       Wednesday’s 7:30 – 9:20 (Group A) JQB 23                                      
                                     Friday’s 9:30 – 11:20 (Group B) CC

This course introduces students to the interaction between politics and economics and its implication for Africa’s development.  It will examine both domestic and international forces that influence Africa’s development since independence, the continent’s response to these developmental challenges and the contending theories that shaped those responses. It is expected that students will be able to identify and discuss the different theories that underpin the International Political Economy and apply them to the various developmental challenges of Africa and other parts of the world in similar circumstances.

Development Strategy in Historical Perspectives
  • Chang, H.-J. (2005) Kicking Away the Ladder: Developing Strategy in Historical Perspective, London: Anthem Press (Chapter 1, “Introduction: How did the Rich Countries Really Rich?,” pp. 1 – 9)
  • Wade, R. H. (2003) Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the role of Government in East Asia’s Industrialization, Princeton: Princeton University Press (“Introduction”)
  • Bardhan, P. (1993) “Symposium on Democracy and Development” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 45-49
  • Nye, J. (1991) “The Myth of Free-Trade Britain and Fortress France: Tariffs and Trade in the Nineteenth Century” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 53, No.1, pp. 23-46
The Political Economy Framework
  • DfID (2009) Political Economy Analysis:  How to Note. A DfID Practice Paper, July
  • Hickey, S. (2007) Conceptualizing the Politics of Social Protection in Africa. BWPI Working Paper 4, October
  • Whitfield, L. (2011) Competitive Clientelism, Easy Financing and Weak Capitalist: the Contemporary Political Settlements in Ghana. DIIS Working Paper 27
Theoretical Approaches and Contending Perspectives in IPE
  • Ravenhill, J. (ed) (2005) Global Political Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, (Part One, pp. 3 – 47)
  • O’Brien, R. and Williams, M. (2004) Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, (Chp. 1, Understanding the Global Political Economy, pp. 11 – 36)
  • Jackson, R.  and Sorensen, G. (2003) Introduction to International Relations Theories and Approaches, Oxford: Oxford University Press (Chp. 6, International Political Economy Theories (IPE): Classical Theories, pp. 175 – 193;  Chp. 8, International Political Economy: Contemporary Debates).
  • Oatley, T. (2008) International Political Economy: Interests and Institutions in the Global Economy, Third Edition, New York: Pearson Education, Inc. (Chp. 1: International Political Economy, pp. 2 – 21)

Aid and Africa’s Development   
  • Dambisa, M. (2009) Dead Aid: Why Aid is not Working and How there is a Better Way for Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, (Part I: The World of Aid, pp. 3 – 68)
  • World Bank (2000) Can Africa Claim the 21st Century? Washington DC: World Bank (Chp. 8: “Reducing Aid Dependence and Debt and Strengthening Partnerships”, pp. 235 – 255)
  • World Bank (2002) A Case for Aid: Building a Consensus for Development Assistance, Washington DC: World Bank (Part II: Nicholas Stern “Making the Case for Aid” pp.  15 – 24)
  • Neumayer, E. (2003) The Pattern of Aid Giving: the Impact of Good Governance on Development Assistance, London: Routledge
  •  Arslanalp, Serkan and Peter Blair Henry (2004) “Helping the Poor Help Themselves: Debt Relief or Aid?”, NBER Working Paper N0. 10230, January

Globalization and Africa’s Development  
  •  Wolf, M.  (2004) Why Globalization Works, New Haven: Yale University Press (Chp. 2, What Liberal Globalization Means, pp. 13 – 22; Chp.7, Globalization in the Long Run, pp. 96 – 105)   
  • Stiglitz, J. E.  (2002)  Globalization and its Discontents, New York: W.W. Norton and Company (Chp. 9, The Way Ahead, pp. 214 – 252)
  • Wade, R. (2005) “Globalization, Poverty and Inequality” in Ravenhill, J. (ed)   Global Political Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Boafo-Arthur, K. (2003) “Tackling Africa’s Developmental Dilemmas: Is Globalization the Answer?” Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. XX, No. 1, Spring, pp. 27 – 54

Responses to Africa’s Economic Quandary
  • Callaghy, T.M. and Ravenhill, J.  (eds.) (1993) Hemmed In: Responses to Africa’s Economic Decline, New York: Columbia University Press (Introduction “Vision, Politics and Structure: Afro-Optimism, Afro-Pessimism, or Reality”)
  • Chang, H. (2005) Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective, London: Anthem Press (Chp. 3, Institutions and Economic Development: “Good Governance” in Historical Perspective, pp. 69 – 110) 
  • Sen, A.  (1999) Development as Freedom, Oxford: Oxford University Press, (Chp. 1, The Perspective of Freedom, pp. 13 – 34; Chp. 2, The Ends and Means of Development, pp.  35 – 53)   
  • The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) (